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The knee joint, which appears like a simple hinge-joint, is one of the most complex
joint. Moreover, the knee is more likely to be injured than is any other joint in the body.

Knee joint must be regarded as consisting of three articulations in one: two condyloid
joints, one between each condyle of the femur and the corresponding meniscus and
condyle of the tibia; and a third between the patella and the femur, partly arthrodial,
but not completely so, since the articular surfaces are not mutually adapted to each
other, so that the movement is not a simple gliding one.

We tend to ignore our knees until something happens to them that causes pain. If
we take good care of our knees now, before there is a problem, we can really help
ourselves. In addition, if some problems with the knees develop, an exercise
program can be extremely beneficial. To understand the functions, conditions,
surgeries & procedures of the knee better, we have included an interactive
animated presentation.

Click on the topics below to go the desired section

Knee anatomy :: Knee arthritis :: Knee Arthroscopy :: Total Knee Replacement (TKR)
 ACL Reconstruction :: Unicondylar Knee Replacement :: Revision Knee Replacement
MAKOplasty® / Partial Knee Resurfacing



Normal anatomy of the Knee joint

Find out more in this web based movie.

Knee Anatomy


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Arthritis of the Knee joint
The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint, but is generally used to describe any
condition in which there is damage to the cartilage.

Click here to go to the section on arthritis.

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Arthroscopy of the knee joint
.

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy
is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to
examine. The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid
recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an
outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Find out more about knee arthroscopy with the following links.

Knee Arthroscopy

Knee Arthroscopy

Interactive Movie Text version Printable version Orthopaedic Surgeons & Practice websites with Hipsknees movies




Total Knee Replacement (TKR).

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces
an arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.

Find out more about Total Knee Replacement (TKR) with the following links.

Total Knee Replacement

Interactive Movie Text version Printable version Orthopaedic Surgeons & Practice websites with Hipsknees movies




Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL reconstruction


The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a
strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia.
When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn’t heal and often leads to
the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in
arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incisions and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction (Hamstring tendon)

Interactive Movie Text version Printable version Orthopaedic Surgeons & Practice websites with Hipsknees movies

ACL Reconstruction (Patellar Tendon)
 

Interactive Movie Text version Printable version Orthopaedic Surgeons & Practice websites with Hipsknees movies




Uni condylar (Unicompartmental) knee replacement.



This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision
than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral and medial and lateral compartments between the femur
and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg).

Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have
symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this then you may be suitable for this procedure.

Find out more from the links below.

Interactive Movie
Text version Printable version Orthopaedic Surgeons & Practice websites with Hipsknees movies




Revision knee replacement.

This means that part or all of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This
operation varies from very minor adjustments to massive operations replacing significant
amounts of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.

Click on following links to find out more about Revision knee Replacement.

Interactive Movie
Text version Printable version Orthopaedic Surgeons & Practice websites with Hipsknees movies

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MAKOplasty® / Partial Knee Resurfacing

Partial knee replacement is a treatment option for people with early to mid-stage osteoarthritis (OA) that has not yet impacted their entire knee. Only the diseased portion of the knee is replaced, sparing healthy bone and the ligaments known as the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and PCL (posterior cruciate ligament).

Text version







Osteotomy



Osteotomy literally means cutting of bone. In osteotomies the bone is cut and its position
changed in order to take pressure of a joint. It is more common in the knee than the hip.

In the knee it is done for arthritis affecting only one side of the joint. The idea is that the
bone is cut and realigned to take pressure off the affected part and put onto a better part
of the joint hence taking away pain.

An osteotomy can be performed around the hip in the pelvis or the top of the femur and
in the knee in the femur just above the knee or tibia just below the knee. Osteotomies
in the knee are usually done to correct knock knee or bowed legs.

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